It is important to learn history for the lessons contained within it, not just history for its own sake. “Remember the days of old, understand the years of generation after generation. Ask your father and he will relate to you, your elders and they will tell you.”Read More
When God asked us to be careful and avoid danger, He meant more than just not running around while carrying a sharp stick.Read More
Now in the days before Rosh Hashannah let us take the opportunity to do teshuvah with all our hearts and not kick the can down the road.Read More
The sages instituted a blessing for seeing all sorts of natural wonders, but not for the solar eclipse.Read More
Normally this space is reserved for the words of Rabbi Bassous. However, I hope he doesn’t mind this little intrusion.
The following are the words of Rabbi Elon Weintraub - a student at Yeshiva University. Elon grew in Etz Ahaim from a young child - at one time, our “youngest member”. All most all of those years were under Rabbi Bassous. Although the words are Rabbi Weintraub’s, his thinking and learning were formed under the tutelage of Rabbi Bassous
I was asked by Yitzchak Friedman to speak this Tishba Bav at the Beis about the qinna, שאלישרופהבאש, Ask After, O One Burned in Fire. It is a qinna I did not grow up say at Etz Ahaim, but one I know intimately well, as it is one of the most talked about elegies in the Ashkenazi Rite. Normally, I am terrible about recording speeches I have given, but I thought I would take a few moments as midday quickly approaches to attempt to preserve something of my thoughts and emotions on this day. What follows is roughly what I tried to convey.
For a long time, until the mid 1200s, we had a reprieve. I say that, and I know it sounds insane. We just read about the horrors following the destruction of the Temple. We talked at length about the Crusades and the gruesome events that followed. Yet, Christendom had left us a safe-haven. We might be persecuted as heretics, we might be murdered. But our retreat, our Torah always survived. Our enemies did not pay heed to what we were writing. There were probably two reasons for this. The first was that our books were written in tongues they didn’t speak, Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic. The second was that whatever a heretic and non-believer wrote was crass heresy by definition. You persecuted them for being a heretic. It didn’t matter what they wrote. It needed no examination, and that gave us a certain freedom of expression, which we took full advantage of.
Yet, around 1230, in French lands, that suddenly changed. The fight in France over the acceptability over the works of Maimonides in Southern France and in Provence became increasingly heated. And so it was that the Jewish Leaders of Montpelier had a bright idea. If they could convince the Inquisition, a brand new institution at the time, that the Guide and Yad were heresy, not because they contradicted Christianity, but because they contradicted universal truths about God, that they would then have a powerful ally in suppressing these works they considered the utmost danger. Thus, in late 1233, translated Latin portions of the Guide were sent to the Dominican Friars there who did indeed find these arguments convincing, and copies of Maimonides were put to the flame.
Not three years later, this spectacle perhaps inspired another Jew, the Christian convert Nicholas Donin, to approach the Inquisition and King Louis IX of France with a request to eradicate a second great Jewish work. He raised 35 different complaints against the Babylonian Talmud, among them that it mocks Jesus, that it contains obscenity, and that the Aggada and Midrash in it provide distorted and absurd readings of the Bible. He pointed out that the Bible is a holy Christian work as well as a Jewish one, and by distancing themselves from the written words, Jews deny themselves the truth. The Pope received his writings with favor, and the King granted Nicholas’s request to have all copies of the Talmud and commentaries seized and have the four leaders of the Jewish community be forced to stand in disputation against him.
Eventually, on a Friday in the summer of 1242 (Tammuz 5002 on the Jewish calendar), all seized Talmudic material, said to be 24 wagonloads in total, was ordered to be burnt in the streets of Paris.
This story is well-known and can be found in every elucidated Kinna book, and I wondered what I should specifically talk about. Should I talk about the role of informers in upsetting the Jewish community, and how the fear of them reverberates today? Should I talk about the harm of attacks on our own works, how even after the Talmud was burned as a result of what our leaders started, the shock wore off. There were further attacks and condemnations of Maimonides’s works and later the works of others. Should I mention that we did not learn?
Should I discuss the value of those 24 wagonloads, how hard it was to painstakingly write out a tractate by hand, and that was only possible if you could even find another copy of that tractate to use as the template. After 1242, that was just impossible in France; there were no originals. Should I tell how I would give my own right hand just for a glimpse at one of those wagons, to see what secrets it might contain? Should I offer rebuke and say how they in Paris would give their right hands to see all our printed books and the Bar Ilan Responsa, yet do we even appreciate fully what a gift we have?
In the end, I decided to let the words of the Meqonnen speak for himself. Maharam — R Meir of Rothenburg was a young Rabbi in his 20s at the time of the burning. After it, there was no place for him in France, and he moved back to Germany. At some point he wrote this about his experience. His qinna doesn’t talk about the history of the burning. It doesn’t bemoan how hard it is to replace manuscripts. He doesn’t even discuss all the commentaries that were destroyed or the halakhot that might now be forgotten. The qinna is really about an existential crisis. What does it mean to live through such an event, to see the torah and life as you know it reduced to ash.
Addressing those around him, he asks how could it be that words of fire, written by the God compared to Consuming Fire could be burned by human hands, and those humans are unscathed? Did God give the Torah with this fate in mind? Was it supposed to revert to the fire and smoke of Sinai? He wonders how he himself is supposed to go on, having witnessed such a disaster. He asks of Moses and Aaron, in their graves, was this supposed to happen? Is there now a new Torah, that we should burn the old one? And he rages at the Christian rulers, was it not enough for them to judge and kill us, that they also had to drag the Torah into it?
But mostly, following the lead of Yehudi Halevi, on whose ציוןהלאתשאלי, the theme and meter was based, he addresses his beloved, and demands that it think of his welfare. The beloved is not Israel as in the original ציוןהלאתשאלי, but the Torah. True, you were burned in fire, but now think of us. Your fate is known. But now that you are gone, how can we live? How can we function? You were our pillar of support and our desire. God, so to speak, walked away, and you were destroyed, and we remain wallowing in dust, blinded by pain, uncertain of the future.
Maharam was writing as a survivor. In a sense a tragedy is worse for the survivors than the victims. They are the ones who need to make sense of everything, to figure out how to pick up the pieces and move on. This was a calamity that tore out the soul of Israel, but left the people entirely intact. How does one make sense of something like that? Can one? We are all survivors of countless tragedies. We are the merest remnants of Israel. And all of us bear countless existential scars Can we comprehend what we’ve gone through? Will we be able to even survive?"
The period commencing with Rosh Chodesh Av (Monday, July 24th) is called the Nine Days. During this time, a stricter level of mourning is observed, in accordance with the Talmudic dictum (Ta'anit 26): "When the month of Av begins, we reduce our joy."
"These are the journeys of the Jewish people… and they journeyed and they camped.” (Num. 33:1-35)
Forty-two times the Torah stresses “and they journeyed … and they camped.” The Torah doesn’t have a superfluous letter, let alone an extra phrase, so many scholars have analyzed and commented on this apparent reiteration. Various reasons are offered, each to teach us something.
The first Rashi in Parshat Masei mentions that Israel had 14 journeys during the first year until they arrived at Ritmah (which is Kadesh Barne'a). Then they wandered for 38 years where they had 20 journeys. Then, the final year there were 8 journeys after Aharon died as they went into the land. Each encampment represented another step in this process.
At one point the Israelites actually regressed and had to retreat for eight encampments. (Rashi, Num. 21:4) Rashi explains that the purpose of recounting all the journeys and encampments is to publicize the loving-kindness of G-d, Who for 40 years kept the journeys and encampments down to a relatively small number to avoid overburdening the people. The 40 years of wandering in the desert retroactively include the one year that passed before the meraglim caused Israel to be punished. You could say that the sentence included "time served."
The Midrash Tanchuma compares the situation to that of a king who took his sick son to a faraway land for a cure. On their way back, with the prince recovered, his father lovingly reflects on all the experiences they had gone through at each place they had stopped. For him these places represented stages in his son’s journey to health and were invested with an atmosphere of gratitude and love. In the same way, the names of the campsites at the beginning of Masei is a loving memory of recovery and healing.
The Torah commentaries state that the 40 years in the desert were a period of spiritual growth and development necessary to prepare the Jews for entrance into the Holy Land. The enumeration of their journeys is an account of their spiritual progress. The same people who were lacking in faith in G-d manifested by the golden calf and the episode of the spies needed a long course in spiritual development under the guidance of Moses.
Maimonides in his “Guide to the Perplexed” opines that the record is to stress that there was order and planning of the itinerary during those years. The Jews were not lost in the desert. We are to understand that once “Plan B” came into effect and the Jews were to be delayed in entering Israel, Providence led them with purpose, while miraculously providing for them. Maimonides teaches that “wandering” in the desert should be replaced with “the travels and journeys of the Jewish people in the wilderness.”
The Sforno suggests a different reason. He says that the purpose of the precise record is to teach us of the Israelites’ deep faith in G-d and the discipline they showed when they were ordered to leave one place and proceed to another. These orders may have seemed at times unreasonable. The Torah tells us that the time the Jewish nation stayed in one place varied from less than 24 hours to days, months or even years.
Even if they were happy in a particular place, if they were ordered to move on, they did. Although the book of Numbers, which we complete this week, is full of examples of improper behavior and a rebellious spirit on the part of the Israelites, their character had another side, one of abiding faith and trust in their Creator. It is on this positive note that Numbers ends and it is this side of the picture that the prophet refers to when he says, “I remember for you the kindness of your youth … how you followed Me in the wilderness in an unplanted land.” (Jeremiah 2:2)
The Magen Avraham brings a Halacha in the name of the Tzror Hamor regarding this week's Parasha, Ma'se. He rules that when we read the 42 journeys the Jewish people traveled in the desert, we are not allowed to stop in the middle, because they correspond to the 42-letter name of Hashem, which cannot be broken up. The Pasuk says: "על פי ה' יחנו ועל פי ה' יסעו"-Throughout their 40 years in the desert, every move the Jewish people made was done according to the will of Hashem. They did not always understand His plan, but it was all part of a larger picture which needed to be completed before it was understood.
The Ba'al Shem Tov taught that these journeys also represent the life journey of each and every one of us. Hashem moves us to different places, He puts us in different situations, and we often do not understand. But we can't stop in the middle. There's a plan; it's all calculated. When the picture is completed, everything will be understood.
The Three Weeks lasts from the fast on the 17th of Tammuz (Shiva Asar B'Tammuz) and end on the end of the 9th day of Av (The fast of Tisha B'Av).
This chart shows you what is permitted and what is prohibited during that particular time period of the three weeks.
The saddest time of the Jewish calendar is sandwiched between two fast days Shiv'ah Asar B'Tammuz - the seventeenth of Tammuz on July 11th and Tisha B'Av evening of July 31. This period of time is called Beyn hametzarim ("between the straits" i.e. days of distress).Read More
The festival of Shavuot commemorates G-d the giving the Torah to the Jewish nation on Mt. Sinai. The Midrash states that the Jewish people at Sinai slept all night. sp why do we now stay up all night?Read More
There is a custom to eat dairy foods on Shavuot. To fulfill this custom, people make cheese borekas, blintzes, and of course, cheesecake. But out of all the holidays, do we only purposefully eat a dairy meal on Shavuot?Read More
Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, often referred to simply as Rashbi (an acronym taken from the initials Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai), was one of the great Tannaitic sages who lived during the era of Roman persecution (2nd century CE).Read More
One is to love your friend as yourself. It has been pointed out that there are two words in lashon hakodesh for saying friend; chaver and re’a.Read More
No other religion in the world, that I am aware of, obligates its adherents to live in a specific location. Why did God command the Jewish people to live in Israel?Read More
Rabbi Yochanan said to them: Go and see which is the best trait for a person to acquire.Read More
Everyone in their lives have ups and downs; some periods are smooth and fun others are challenging and even worrying; financial setbacks, health issues, relationship issues there is always something to worry about.Read More
After Passover, the festival of freedom, the question resonates in my head. Do you feel free? Is anyone truly free? Can anyone be completely free? What do we mean by freedom?Read More
A couple of years ago I was told by a young man that when he prayed after smoking weed his experience was vivid and amazing he felt spiritual, joyous and really connected to God. He asked me what my view on his experience wasRead More
The Sefat Emet asks why the Omer offering in the Holy Temple consisted solely of barley. However the Two Loaves offered on Shavuot were wheat bread.Read More
‘Shelach et Ami’ ‘Let My People Go’! Moshe Rabenu’s famous rallying cry has often been quoted most famously in the large demonstrations around the world for Freedom of Russian Jewry. However the verse is always misquoted because it is quoted incompletely. The complete quote is ‘Let my people go and serve me.’Read More